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How to write definitions in literature review

How to write definitions in literature review

 

In academic writing especially in thesis and dissertations, the use of the definitions is normally needed in two cases:

  1. a) In introductions, or in the literature review, in order to clarify a word or phrase in the research title.
  2. b) More generally, to explain a word or phrase in research, that may be either very

technical (and so not in normal dictionaries), or very recent, or with no widely agreed meaning.

 

A formal definition, is based upon a concise, logical pattern that includes as much information as it can within a minimum amount of space. The primary reason to include definitions in your academic research writing is to avoid misunderstanding with your audience.

Formal definition consists of three parts:

 

  • The term (word or phrase) to be defined
  • The class of object or concept to which the term belongs
  • The differentiating characteristics that distinguish it from all others of its class

When writing introductions, it is often helpful to define a term in the title, even when it may be in common use, to demonstrate that you have thought about it and that you have a clear idea what it means in your research, the different connotations.

 

WHEN TO USE DEFINITIONS

  • When your writing contains a term that may be key to audience understanding and that term could likely be unfamiliar to them.
  • When a commonly used word or phrase has layers of subjectivity or evaluation in the way you choose to define it.
  • When the etymology (origin and history) of a common word might prove interesting or will help expand upon a point.

 

TIPS FOR WRITING DEFINITIONS

 

Avoid defining with “X is when” and “X is where” statements. These introductory adverb phrases should be avoided. Define a noun with a noun, a verb with a verb, and so forth.

Do not define a word by mere repetition or merely restating the word.

Define a word in simple and familiar terms. Your definition of an unfamiliar word should not lead your audience towards looking up more words in order to understand your definition.

Keep the class portion of your definition small but adequate. It should be large enough to include all members of the term you are defining but no larger. Avoid adding personal details to definitions. Although you may think the plot about your research topic in dissertation, will perfectly encapsulate the concept of stinginess, your audience may fail to relate. Offering personal definitions may only increase the likeliness of misinterpretation that you are trying to avoid. How to write definitions in literature review for thesis is now explained but if you not sure about your literature review, call us to help you. If you are doing your MBA thesis and require help…

 

 

 

Tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation

Tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation

 

Tips on Dissertation introduction

This article tells you tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation as to what you should include in the Introduction and what you should leave out, and what reviewers and journal editors look for in this section. The dissertation introduction is the first chapter of any thesis or dissertation, or project that appears after the section of table of contents. It’s essential to draw attention right from the start, create a flow, with a clear culmination of broader facts, thoughts, findings leading to the research phenomenon a narrowed down version.

What is the function of the Introduction section in dissertation?

Generally the dissertation introduction should answer the question ‘Why,’ factor of the research topic in a slow and gradual revealing manner. However, the researcher need also to highlight as to why you choose that topic for research. Highlighting the surrounding or indirect issues is important. So questions like – why or how the phenomenon of the research topic comes into picture needs to be written. Is it a new phenomenon or people are aware, what is being done, your abilities to links multiple causes leading to adopted a particular research topic ; and so on. You can also think of the dissertation introduction as the first section that points out to the gap in knowledge. The remaining stage of the research paper will need to fill  the section, where as a researcher you have to define and claim and build the platform within the broad area of research.

The other task, is that  dissertation introduction should do, is to throw some light on the background information and set the tone of the research context. The tone is hard to explain, of course academic language and no colloqiual jargons. The attempt like describing the research problem, you can direct the thoughts of the reader towards the unfulfilled research question. For the reader, you can also ask (in the main body of the paper the kind of challenges or phenomenon happening. While it is certain you will not offer the solution to the problem, or can show partly resolved issues through citation of empirical studies. The initial stage of the introduction requires to answer to the main research question) at some point and create a thesis statement.  If there is any solution(s), then discuss briefly, or citing any approaches that already has been tried elsewhere.

Remember that a thesis or a dissertation usually has a separate chapter titled ‘Review of literature,’ but a research paper has no such section; instead, the Introduction includes a review in brief.

The last part of the section in the chapter of introduction should specify the research objectives of the experiment or analysis. So there is a culmination of what is happening, what ought to be done, and hence leading to the obvious research aims, research objectives and research question formulation.  This concluding part of section of the introduction should include specific details or the exact question(s) to be answered later in the research. Tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation

STEPS FOR WRITING A GOOD INTRODUCTION IN RESEARCH :

  1. Provide research background information and set the tone of context:

This initial part of the chapter of introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later. The first couple of sentences are typically broad.

  1. Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important.

The authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research. So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the research problem.Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on.

  1. Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question.

As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the dissertation introduction section of a research; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated (involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments) the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.

  1. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research.

The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details.

Tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation above serves any student at Bachelors dissertation or Bachelor degree end term project, internship project, work based project as well for Masters or Graduate studies too. While the above tips hold true for thesis as well, but it requires to justify in expanded form. Tips for writing introduction of a research in dissertation.

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SAMPLE Template of FINAL PROJECT REPORT

SAMPLE Template of FINAL PROJECT REPORT

Cover Page

    Acknowledgement

    Certificate of the Project guide/Centre Manager

    Certificate of the Company/Organisation

    Synopsis of the Project

    Main Report:

  •         Objective & Scope of the Project.
  •         Theoretical Background.
  •         Definition of Problem.
  •         System Analysis & Design vis-a-vis User Requirements.
  •         System Planning (PERT Chart).
  •         Methodology adopted, System Implementation & Details of Hardware & Software used.
  •         System Maintenance & Evaluation.
  •         Cost and benefit Analysis.
  •         Detailed Life Cycle of the Project:
  •             ERD, DFD
  •             Input and Output Screen Design
  •             Process involved
  •             Methodology used for testing
  •             Test Report, Printout of the Reports, Printout of the Code Sheet
  •             User/Operational Manual – including security aspects, access rights, back up, controls, etc.
  •  

Annexures:

 

    Brief background of the organisation where the student has developed the project.

    Data Dictionary

 

    This should give a catalogue of the data elements used in the system/sub system developed. The following are the details required. Write NA if NOT applicable :

  •     Data Name
  •     Aliases, if any
  •     Length (Size)
  •     Type, Numeric, Alpha, Binary etc.
  •     List of abbreviations, Figures, Tables
  •     Reference
  •  
  •     – Bibliography
  •     – Website

    Soft copy of the project on CD or Floppy.

SAMPLE Template of FINAL PROJECT REPORT

 

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Guidelines while presenting your Project

Guidelines while presenting your Project

 

These are a set of Guidelines while presenting your Project that would help you when you present your project to everyone. Your requirement can be diverse – PhD defense, synopsis presentation, proposal presentation, dissertation presentation in your University, international conference PPT

Talk to the audience. Avoid talking to the floor, to the wall or to the projector screen. Try to keep contact with your audience. Seek eye contact with your supervisor, examiner or even your friends who are listening. But also do so without staring at anyone.

During the talk you will of course have to face the projector screen sometimes, for example to point out details shown on the slides.. Show the slides properly. Avoid showing a slide for just a second or two before going on to the next one. In most cases, there is no way that anybody in the audience will grasp the information on your slide within seconds. It is easy to overestimate the speed at which people can grasp the information. You may have spent a long time writing, revising and thinking about the contents of a particular slide, and therefore the information on it may seem obvious to you. The audience, on the other hand, is seeing it for the first time, and they need some time to read and interpret it.

Explain things. For each slide you have to explain clearly to the audience what it shows. If, for example, the slide contains a line graph, you have to tell the audience what the x and y-axes represent (always include legends for all figures and graphs on your slides). Otherwise, the graph is meaningless to look at. Do not expect the audience to find out things for themselves by reading the slide.

Keep an eye on the time. Use your allocated time well. If you have, for example, 20 min for your talk, then practice the talk so that you know how long each part takes. Also leave a margin, so that you don’t find yourself running out of time and having to skip some parts. If you do run out of time when presenting, you may have to jump directly to the slide that conclude your talk when there is a minute or so left of the allotted time. Monitor the tempo. Do not talk too fast, or too slowly. Perhaps you can ask your supervisor beforehand to give you signals as to whether you are talking too fast or too slowly. You can vary the tempo and your voice during the talk in order to emphasise certain things in the presentation.

Avoid reading word by word from the slide. This should be done only occasionally, when the slide contains, for example, a very important definition, or a quote that is fundamental for your work and very important to communicate exactly to the audience. Otherwise, you should not treat the slides as part of your manuscript. Normally, your slide should contain short phrases, whereas your talk should be more explanatory.

Use a glass of water. If you get uncertain or nervous during your talk, it can be a good idea to have some form of distraction. The act of reaching for a glass of water, for example, serves as a useful mini break. The audience might think that you are just sipping water for a couple of seconds, but during these few, but valuable seconds, you have time to calm down, soothe the dry throat, and even think 12 Presenting and Defending your Work Orally through, for example, how to introduce the next slide or give a good answer to a question from the audience.

Do not block the view. Find a convenient place were you can stand, so that you do not block the projected slides. This issue of not blocking the view is also of importance if you are using transparencies and an overhead projector. When pointing to figures etc., it is generally better to point to the projection screen rather than to the transparency on the projector. . Use a pointing device. Think beforehand about how you will point to things on your slides if you need to. This is particularly important if you are using transparencies, where pointing at the slide itself would force you to look right into the light of the projector, so that when you look back up again you can only see black spots. A better method is to use a laser pointer or a stick. If you use a laser pointer, the time to find out how it works is before the talk, rather than during it. If you use a stick, try to avoid showing your nervousness by swinging it back and forth or otherwise jiggling it. Unless you use it very often, put it down on the desk when you do not need it.

No matter how well you have prepared beforehand, do not be surprised if you feel a bit nervous at the beginning of the presentation. This is normal, and happens to almost everybody, no matter how many times they have given presentations before. If the nervousness is so bad that it really troubles you, it may help to remember the examiner and the rest of the audience are interested in your project, and not in whether you are nervous or not. If the content of your talk is of high quality, then a trembling voice or shaky fingers are of no consequence, and may not even be noticed by anyone. Here are some of the tips and guidelines while presenting your Project to an audience.

You will require to present your project in your University academic course. Therefore feel free to seek help for PhD defense, synopsis presentation, proposal presentation, dissertation presentation in your University, international conference PPT. 

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Problems faced in your final year project and ways to avoid them

Your academic project would be a demanding, but an exciting learning experience. However, it is not without problems which, if not identified and addressed, could seriously effect the final result and ultimately reduce your marks. Here we mentioned some of these problems and how to avoid them.

The “Overachiever” Problem:

 

A common problem is selecting a topic that is far too ambitious for the allotted time.   Remember that you have only a few weeks to finish the design, development and testing of your project. Be careful not to select a topic that is unrealistically large.  This can lead to frustration as well as errors caused by “cutting corners” and hurrying through the implementation.  Discuss with your supervisor the scale of what you are planning.  If he or she thinks it may be too large, consider implementing the project in stages, each complete in itself.  When stage I is working move on to stage II.  If you do not finish stage II, however, you still have a functioning system.

The “Do It Tomorrow” Problem:

 

The project weeks alloted for completion sounds like a long time, but it goes by quickly.  You need an implementation schedule that allocates reasonable amounts of work throughout the entire semester. Then you must stick to that schedule.  Don’t be tempted to postpone work on the project because your due date seems so far off.  All that happens is that during the final few weeks you rush madly to get something working, and project implemented in a rush rarely works correctly!

The “Sleeping Member” Problem:

 

In the ideal world, all team members have equal ability, equal interest in the problem, and work equally hard.  In the real world that may not happen.  You may have one (or more) team members who do not carry their share of the workload, not because of a lack of ability, but rather lack of interest or motivation.  This is a serious problem because, although part of your marks is based on each individual’s effort, another part is based on successfully finishing the project.  A non-contributing team member can slow down or prevent completion of the work.  If you have a teammate who is not doing his or her share of the work, talk to them and stress the importance of everyone doing their job.  If this does not solve the problem then talk to your supervisor.  Don’t let the failure of others prevent you from completing the work and receiving good marks.

The “Poop Out At the End” Problem:

You have worked hard for many weeks to complete the project. You have spent many late nights and chased down hundreds of bugs, but it is now working, so are you done?  Absolutely not!  The project evaluation is not based only on the programs you develop but also on your written reports and oral presentations.  Even though you may be “burned out” from implementation, remember there is still work to do. Don’t produce a poorly witten paper or give a poorly organized presentation.  That will negate much of your good work. Put in the time needed to prepare both a well written, high-quality final report and a well organized, polished presentation. A good job on these last steps will insure that you receive the marks that fairly represents the work you have done.